Perusahaan CV. ADHI JAYA

Nutrition Requirements in the Elderly

Because of the physiological and psychosocial diversity of older adults, studying nutrition of the aging is very challenging. Factors such as nutrition, genetics, physical activity and stress contribute to the diverse population of elderly adults. The first possible problem lies in that many elderly adults are eating alone. Buy small cans of vegetables instead of large ones.

1. Separate foods that must be bought in large quantities.
2. Use nonfat dry milk
Try cooking in larger portions
3. Buy frozen vegetables.
4. Label foods with date and name.

As for the nutrient needs of the elderly woman, studies have shown that the quantity of nutritious food is voluntarily reduced as they become older. Because of the lower energy needs protein-containing foods should be of high quality. For example, choose low fat protein-rich foods such as lean meats, poultry, fish, non-fat milk and low-fat cottage cheese. Foods that are high in fat should be limited since fat carries more that twice the calories per gram of protein and carbohydrate. Finally, the subject of drug-nutrient interactions should be addressed. Remember that over the counter drugs can interfere with nutritional status just as prescriptions drugs. This results in decreased caloric needs, which can be complicated by changes in an older person’s ability to balance food intake and energy needs.

Total Calorie Requirement:

Calorie needs change in the elderly due to more body fat and less lean muscle. Less activity can further decrease in calorie needs. It is better to choose foods high in nutrients in relation to their calories. Such foods are considered “nutrient-dense.” For example, low-fat milk is more nutrient dense than regular milk. Protein absorption may decrease as we age, and our bodies may make less protein. Vitamins and Minerals

Vitamin deficiencies may not be obvious in many older people. Eating nutrient-dense foods becomes increasingly important when calorie needs decline but vitamin and mineral
needs remain high.

The body can store fat-soluble vitamins and usually the elderly are at lower risk of fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies. To enhance iron absorption from non-meat sources, such as cereals, eat a wide selection of foods, including calcium-rich foods such as low-fat dairy products. Add vitamin C-rich fruits and vegetables. Research has shown that eating foods with vitamin E, like whole grains, peanuts, nuts, vegetable oils, and seeds, may help reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Low levels of vitamin B12 have been associated with memory loss and linked to age-related hearing loss in older adults. To avoid deficiency, older adults are advised to eat foods rich in vitamin B12, such as eggs and dairy foods, regularly.

Adequate water intake reduces stress on kidney function, which tends to decline with age. Adequate fluid intake also eases constipation. Variety of Foods

People of all ages need more than 40 nutrients to stay healthy. Reduce calories, select nutrient-dense foods, and enjoy smaller portions of foods high in fat, sugar and sodium

Because no one food or pill provides all of the nutrients, eat a variety of foods to get the full spectrum of nutrients.Variety often is lacking in the diets of the elderly, who often eat the same foods over and over again.

* Eat breakfast foods for lunch or lunch foods for dinner.
* To reduce calories select nutrient-dense foods. Enjoy smaller portions of foods high in fat, sugar and sodium.

Filed under: Nutritional Needs

Nutrition for adults

A baby is born with a very high requirement for energy and nutrient intake per unit of body weight to provide for rapid growth. An adult individual needs to balance energy intake with his or her level of physical activity to avoid storing excess body fat . As teenagers reach adulthood, the basal energy needs for maintaining the body’s physiological functions ( basal metabolic rate , or BMR) stabilize, and so energy requirements also stabilize. Physical activity, especially weight-training exercises, help increase and maintain lean body mass.

Obesity is a risk factor for other degenerative diseases, such as type II (adult onset) diabetes, diseases of heart and circulation, and certain cancers. It is believed that the changes in body composition and reduced lean muscle mass occur at a rate of about 5 percent per decade, and energy requirements decrease accordingly. However, these changes in body composition and decreased energy requirements can be prevented by maintaining regular physical activity, including resistance training, which helps maintain lean muscle mass and prevent deposition of excess body fat.

Good health requires adults to adapt their diets to the body’s changing needs by eating low-fat and nutrient-rich foods.
By preventing normal age-related decline in lean muscle mass, one can prevent obesity and prolong one’s physiological age. Older adults who are not physically active or who have poor nutritional practices will have a decline in BMR, a change in body composition, an increasing percentage of body fat, and a decrease in lean body muscle mass. As women age, they may develop osteoporosis if they have not built up strong bones by eating foods high in calcium and adequate vitamin D .

Filed under: Nutritional Needs